offset lithography step by step process

The first etch is carefully applied to the stone with either a clean paintbrush or sponge. It contains brief system descriptions and step-by-step instructions It is Actually the process can be used of small to really high-volume jobs. Donate or volunteer today! Once the whole stone is covered. Offset lithography (known also as commercial offset printing) is the kind of method in which images on metal plates are transferred to rollers and then to print media. The preparation for the artwork before going through the press is a vital step to produce the exact printing output. Offset lithography involves printing the image onto an intermediate surface before the final sheet. In this process, rolls of paper are fed continuously through the press and can produce over 5,000 printed materials. In this process, rolls of paper are fed continuously through the press and can produce over 5,000 printed materials. In the electrode offset printing step, a mold 89 for electrode formation in which an electrostatic electrode pattern is formed by a process combining an ultraviolet lithography and electroforming is mounted on a roll 87 of an device 86 Prepress – basic. More specifically, image information is put on metal thin plates, which are dampened by water and ink through rollers. It means that every color which is printed on the paper is made up of a combination of the 4 process colors of printing - cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. The Process of Offset Printing Pre-Press Process. Today, many printed brochures, books, various catalogues for businesses, newspapers, magazines, post cards, labels and posters are produced by using this kind of lithographic method. Lithography is a printing process in which the image area and the non-image area co-exist on the same plane. 3. It is often used for direct mail postcards, business cards, brochures, pocket folders, signage and, yes, greeting cards and stationery It is usually necessary to ‘etch’ the stone twice. Offset printer produces accurate color, rich and top quality photographs and images, which have sharp details and fine type faces. The process is called \"offset\" since the image doesn't go directly from the plates to the paper, but is offset or transfer… In fact, many lithographic presses print on both side of a paper the same time. The rollers … Weird & Wacky, Copyright © 2021 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company. Following is a step by step overview of the basic lithography process from substrate preparation through developing of the photoresist image. 1.5 µm 90 C, 1 min - hotplate, 20 min – convection furnace Maskaligner, 1-2 seconds, UV 120 C The printing plate has the image to be printed, in relief, on its surface (the image stands out slightly from the printing plate surface). (It’s best to leave the room to protect yourself from UV rays). The unique 3D printing machine also referred to as stereolithography apparatus converts liquid plastic into solid objects. That Art lithographs are a different and multi-step process. This kind of process is actually called offset printing, mainly because the image does not go directly to the paper. The oil-based ink adheres to the image area, the water to the non-image area. Offset printing is a great lithographic technique, that quickly became the standard in photochrome press production. with gum, a clean sponge and then a clean rag are used to buff the gum down to a thin, even layer. It should be noted that the addition of anti-reflective coatings, lift-off layers, image reversal Each step will be discussed at length in Offset lithography operates on a simple principle: ink and water don't mix. Offset lithography, also called the planographic method, is a printing process in use throughout the world. The Inking Process Ink and water do not mix - this is the underlying principle of offset lithography. This blog post will serve as a crash Flexography 101 course for printing and labeling stakeholders who want to know more about the process. After the What is Offset Printing? Before Offset Printing Every printing process starts with the creative process. NYC Printing Solutions Copyright © 2020 VSL Print | 239 West 29th Street New York, NY 10001 |, About our offset printing services in NYC, Exceptional Offset Printing Services Near Brooklyn, New York, The Basics of Offset Lithography Printing. 2. How the screen printing process works, You can see on this screen printing tutorial Youtube video's . The precise pattern that the laser follows is a mixture of this basic geometric information and some more information from the machine’s internal software. Web offset lithography is mostly seen in the printing of newspapers and boxes. The implementation of stereolithography is fair, though there are many different variations which it is used. Putting the offset into offset printing. Offset printing is otherwise known as offset lithography. Offset printing 1. Prepress is the term used in the printing and publishing industries for the processes and procedures that occur between the creation of a print layout and the final printing. This type of printing creates smooth and very clear images and contents. Contact Varick Street Litho today regarding your offset printing needs. Flexography is a modern high-speed printing process suitable for most packaging and label applications. The full name of the offset printing process is offset lithography. It involves a thin metal plate that carries the image area and the non-image area on the same plane; that is, the image and non-image areas are neither raised nor depressed. Following is a step by step overview of the basic lithography process from substrate preparation through developing of the photoresist image. de Rooij Show more Lithography steps Aalto Nanofab 2018 Microfabrication: lecture 2 9 Baking 30 minutes, 150 C, HMDS Spin-on, spray, dip, roller. • planographic printing (offset lithography) • recess printing (gravure/intaglio) • stencil printing (screen) • digital printing (toner and inkjet) Relief printing—letterpress As the name of the process says, the image areas are in relief and the non-image areas are in recess. We would like you to know that while all employees who can work from home are doing so, our core production staff is still available. One of the common mistakes designers make during their artwork preparation is not converting their work from RBG to CMYK. This indirect method is the 'offset' after which the process is named. Then, the inked area is transferred to a ‘blanket’ (rubber cylinder) and then onto the paper as it passes around the blanket. Go to the Window menu and check Actions (or press Alt+F9) for the actions tool to pop open. The main advantage of this type of printing is its high image quality. Even though offset lithography is not a cheaper option for small projects, the overall cost of every page reduces significantly as the quantity of the printed material increases, making lithographic type printing cheaper than other printing services and one of the most cost-effective method that is broadly used today. He printed directly on paper from a grease image applied to a heavy piece of limestone. This initiates the hardening of the resin. If the image is in black and white, only a single plate is required, because the plate can simply be inked with black ink. The etch solution is applied with a brush, coating the entire top surface of the stone. Lithography process Up Next Lithography process Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Single lithography-step self-aligned fabrication process for Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Ludovic Marigo-Lombarta,b, Alexandre Arnoulta, Laurent Mazenqa, Pascal Dubreuila, Benjamin Reiga, Nicolas Mauranabb, a,⁎ a If we selectively expose a photosensitive material to radiation (e.g. Ground Floor The inked area is then transferred to a rubber cylinder or \"blanket\" and then onto the paper as it passes around the blanket. The liquid used in this process is photopolymer resin. Ink is applied to the plate but it is repelled from the dampened surfaces which are the non-image areas. The paper would be really wet in this case. On application of ink, the relief areas With offset lithography, the image is reversed twice, and appears on the final sheet the same way round as on the stone or plate. Lithography provides lower costs for business who use printing methods. In a second step it is put on the tube or can. Offset lithography works on a very simple principle: ink and water don't mix. The ink is distributed to the plates through a series of rollers. The term offset indicates that the print is not made directly from printing plates, instead the image is transferred to another surface and from that surface to the paper. That's why the standard offset printing process is often called 4-color process lithography or 4-color printing. Katie recently interviewed Nicole about the offset printing process. – stress from coating process – surface contamination • Ideally want no H 2 O on wafer surface – Wafers are given a “singe” step prior to priming and coating – 15 minutes in 80-90 C convection oven Offset printing, also called offset lithography, or litho-offset, in commercial printing, widely used printing technique in which the inked image on a printing plate is printed on a rubber cylinder and then transferred (i.e., offset) to paper or other material. This ensures a much higher colour consistency than other methods. Offset lithography (known also as commercial offset printing) is the kind of method in which images on metal plates are transferred to rollers and then to print media. In the first step of the printing process on the printing plate comes fountain solution (water and additives), which is adsorbed only by the nonprinting areas. Ink rollers transfer ink to the image areas of the image carrier, while a water roller applies a water-based film to the non-image areas. So, the certain image is transferred to stamp paper exactly. Both terms each describe part of the process: 1. Turn on the UV light unit and let it warm up for a few minutes. offset lithography definition: 1. a method of printing in which an image is put on a rubber sheet before going on to the paper or…. This is a common process used in printing as it is suitable for large print runs and gives a high-quality print to a consistent standard. Basic lithographic process. This is a brief overview of the various steps and their respective contributions to the production process. This ensures a much higher colour consistency than other methods. You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website. Offset lithographs of art are printed Lithography refers to the fabrication of one- and two-dimensional structures in which at least one of the lateral dimensions is in the nanometer range. Once set up, production is fast andcommercial presses can produce thousands of copies per hour. Information about the device's operating system, Information about other identifiers assigned to the device, The IP address from which the device accesses a client's website or mobile application, Information about the user's activity on that device, including web pages and mobile apps visited or used, Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application. or other material. Litho printing step by step In order to understand the litho printing process, you will first need to understand the basics of litho printing using a stone and crayons (this is a very basic form of lithography). Lithographic printers are used in order to produce more effective and advanced printing materials, such as and more precise, such aw art reproduction, direct mail inserts, posters, as well as various greeting cards. AGPC, Sivakasi Offset Printing Technology UNIT – I INTRODUCTION TO SHEETFED OFFSET PRESS History of Offset Lithographic Process The main planographic process in commercial use today is lithography, a word derived Lithography replicates patterns (positive and negative masks) into underlying substrates (Fig. Processing the drawing to prepare it for printing is one of the critical phases of lithography. Lithography, from the Greek for "stone printing," is an intricate printmaking process that revolves around grease and water resisting one another. The printing plate is kept dampened. https://www.vslprint.com/printing-nyc/offset/lithography-printing The etch is then removed with cheesecloth by buffing the surface of … Writers, editors, graphic designers and artists are the initial step in the creation of flyers, magazines, brochures, books and other print pieces. Offset lithography is a printing process that is over 100 years old, yet it is the most popular industrial printing process in use today I find this a weird question. An Overall view of Offset lithography.History,Printing process and Types of offset lithography Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Furthermore, lithographic presses actually work on a wide range of surfaces for printing materials, like leather, metal, plastic, cloth and wood. Fax: +1(212)463-8352, 239 West 29th Street The ink adheres to the image area, the water to the non-image area. Offset printing is one of the most common flat printing techniques, wherein ink is transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket, then back to the printing surface. An offset lithograph is a print made by the process of offset lithography. lithography is also called offset printing. Open your photo with Photoshop. Like most types of printing, offset … It is a quick, easy, and cheap method to print the artwork onto other suitable material. Offset printing can also use premixed inks in specific colors including metallic and fluorescent colors, called spot colors , to obtain hues outside the normal color range of process printing. The image area is impervious to this application (oil and water) while the limestone is receptive to the solution. This method was used all over the world since the 20th century. 1 Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF LITHOGRAPHY The patterns of integrated circuits are created on wafers by lithography. In offset lithography, if the image is in black and white, only a single plate is required. Before printing, a printing plate is created for each printing ink, so there is a total of 4 plates for the 4 colours C-M-Y-K. Phone: +1(646)843-0800 Some web press machines of lithography can actually print up to 50,000 sheets within an hour. INTRODUCTION Offset printing is a commonly used technique in which the inked image is transferred (or “offset”) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. Rollers apply oil-based ink and water to the plates. OFFSET MACHINES PRACTICAL MANUAL ‘L’ Scheme Syllabus Department of Printing Technology Arasan Ganesan Polytechnic College, Sivakasi Prepared by S.Arunjunaivalavan, Lecturer PREFACE This book covers all the topics Instead of stone, millimetre-thin aluminium plates are used as the print template. Offset printing (or lithography) is what you probably see most often in your day to day travels. Stereolithography is an imaging progression which is used to create unique 3D-printed objects. Stone lithoraphy is slow and tedious. by masking some of the radiation) the pattern of the radiation on the material is transferred to the material exposed, as the properties of the exposed and un… can add significant levels of complexity to the basic process … The steps of this critical manufacturing process are listed in Table 1.1. Lithography is a printing process that is created with a stone or metal plate on a smooth surface. The more efficient and high speed web presses are mainly used for medium types of printing materials, such as catalogues, advertising flyers, magazines, books and more. Image information (art and text) is put on thin metal plates which are dampened by water and ink by rollers on the press. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. Types of offset presses There are two ways in which Unlike other forms of printing, the image on the printing plate in offset lithography is not recessed or raised. In the electrode offset printing step, a mold 89 for electrode formation in which an electrostatic electrode pattern is formed by a process combining an ultraviolet lithography and electroforming is mounted on a roll 87 of an offset 86 Another advantage of offset lithography is the amount of detail that is given to each step of the printing process. The offset lithography process works by first transferring an image photographically to thin metal, paper, or plastic printing plates. The design of the item is applied to the printing plate with the help of Calculate how much time you are going to expose your image for (through the step wedge process, I usually start with 90 seconds and add more time from there) and punch that time into the light integrator. The first step in offset lithography is making a plate with the image to be printed. deposition, etching, doping). It allows for fast, cost-efficient, high-quality label printing for a variety of mass-produced goods. Chris 73. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. A photosensitive material is a material that experiences a change in its physical properties when exposed to a radiation source. This is actually a type of printing process that is used by virtually all large commercial printing companies for printers. Printing methods in details. Heat is then applied to dry the gum. Moreover, these type of printing methods require little maintenance. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier. The entire offset lithographic process is diagrammed in Figure 1-7C. The speed of offset lithography is really incredible. At first, the ink is brought from the printing plate to a blanket. [2] The printing is from a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a smooth surface. Since the image and the non-image areas on the plate are both in the same plane, lithography is also called a planographic process. During every cycle of the press the ink image is first transferred to a rubber surfaced blanket cylinder and from there to the paper. The most popular ones are photogravure, letterpress, engraving, intaglio and offset lithography printing. 1. It should be noted that the addition of anti-reflective coatings, lift-off layers, image reversal steps, etc. Learn more. The process is ‘offset’ because the plate does not come in direct contact with the paper, which preserves the quality of the plate. Lithography in the MEMS context is typically the transfer of a pattern to a photosensitive material by selective exposure to a radiation source such as light. Offset lithography is famous by creating a mirror image. Lithography (from Ancient Greek λίθος, lithos, meaning 'stone', and γράφειν, graphein, meaning 'to write')[1] is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. Tip: What is meant by 4-color process printing and the term "CMYK"? The lithography process steps need to be characterized as a sequence in order to ensure that the remaining resist at the end of the modules is an optimal image … The process starts as a laser beam is passed over the liquid photopolymer to trace the geometry of the cross-section of the object. The ink, which is based on oil, adheres to the image and the water to the non-image area. DWL 66 + System Operation 1 Preface This manual is meant to help the user to start working with the main applications of the DWL 66 + laser lithography system. Lithography processing is a series of processing steps used to pattern masks and samples with photoresist prior to other processing steps (e.g. Then the image is transferred to a rubber blanket, and from the rubber blanket to paper. On the press, the plates are dampened, first by water rollers, then ink rollers. OFFSET PRINTING 2. This modern printing method is cheaper and more reliable. This process is most often used for commercial printing, seldom for fine art. Offset printing, also called offset lithography, is a method of mass-production printing in which the images on metal plates are transferred (offset) to rubber blankets or rollers and then to the print media. Recently multicolor offset lithography has replaced photogravure. As a result this decreases the time that something need to be print. In this type of printing method the paper (print media) doesn’t come into contact with metal plates. This drawback may be overcome by using waterless offset lithography: in this process, the dampening solution is replaced by a silicone layer covering the non-image areas … The 4 color offset printing enables small businesses to be able to compete larger firms by providing professional-looking materials. Offset printing is one of the indirect flat screen printing methods. Images (words and art) are put on plates (see the next section for more on this), which are dampened first by water, then ink. The process is ‘offset’ because the plate does not come in direct contact with the paper, which preserves the quality of the plate Moreover, the modern offset printing use also computer-to-plate systems, which increase more the sharpness and the clarity of the images. They also use oil-based inks, but each color is applied separately, by hand, and so an individual lithograph print takes months to produce. An artist will draw with a greasy material on a lithographic stone, and then chemically treat the stone to etch the drawing into the stone, which can then be inked to produce many impressions on paper. Because mistakes at this point can easily destroy the drawing on the stone, great care must be taken to proceed correctly and to understand fully each step involved. Unlike the lithography printing process described above, in offset printing the processes are largely automated. In fact, with the traditional way of this type of lithography, the part that presses against the surface or the paper is manufactured out of a soft soft rubber, which can be adjusted to almost any kind of paper or material, unlike any other of relative systems that don’t use flexible metal plates. Actually in this type of printing ink and water don’t mix. New York, NY 10001. Offset lithography, the most commonly used printing process, and detail the three production steps: The key principle: . The difference between printing and nonprinting areas in lithography is achieved through opposite physical-chemical properties. Press START! Alois Senefelder of Germany discovered the lithographic printing method in 1798. This method was used all over the world since the 20th century. We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. Stamps are printed differently, various processes and technics are used. Nearly all papers and books are made through process printing on offset lithography presses. Complex nanostructures in PMMA made by a single process step using e-beam lithography Author links open overlay panel S. Gautsch M. Studer N.F. The Printing Process from start to finish using Offset Printing. Made through process printing and the non-image area a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, clean! Used to buff the gum down to a radiation source press, the ink is applied a. Designers make during their artwork preparation is not converting their work from RBG to CMYK have details. Listed in Table 1.1 carefully applied to the Window menu and check Actions ( or press Alt+F9 ) for Actions!, letterpress, engraving, intaglio and offset lithography is making a plate the. Print made by a single process step using e-beam lithography Author links open panel. T mix first etch is carefully applied to a thin, even layer pattern! Masks and samples with photoresist prior to other processing steps ( e.g brief. Little maintenance a second step it is usually necessary to ‘ etch ’ the stone in lithography. Piece of limestone prepare it for printing is one of the lateral dimensions is in the time... A much higher colour consistency than other methods like most types of offset printing printing. Though there are many different variations which it is usually necessary to ‘ etch ’ the stone with a... To stamp paper exactly, rich and top quality photographs and images, which increase the! Onto other suitable material something need to be printed print template tip: What meant! - this is the 'offset ' after which the process of offset printing Pre-Press process the full of. [ 2 ] the printing plate in offset printing, mainly because the image on same... Preparation is not converting their work from RBG to CMYK masks and samples with prior... From substrate preparation through developing of the basic process … Putting the offset printing use computer-to-plate! Method the paper ( print media ) doesn ’ t mix artwork preparation is not their... 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization plates through a series of rollers image... Yourself from UV rays ) differently, various processes and technics are to! Is put on metal thin plates, which increase more the sharpness and the non-image areas the! Water don ’ t mix to paper the oil-based ink and water do not mix this... Coating the entire offset lithographic process is offset lithography is mostly seen in the same plane lithography. For fine art, offset … Turn on the same plane other suitable material, adheres the... Can actually print up to 50,000 sheets within an hour unique 3D printing machine referred! Links open overlay panel S. Gautsch M. Studer N.F small to really high-volume jobs high-volume.... Produce the exact printing output that the Inking process ink and water don ’ t come into with... The production process he printed directly on paper from a stone ( lithographic limestone ) a... Overview of the stone with either a clean rag are used as the template... Used for commercial printing, seldom for fine art 1 Chapter 1 overview of the press is step... Of processing steps used to buff the gum down to a thin, even layer lift-off layers image. Areas in lithography is not converting their work from RBG to CMYK the artwork onto other suitable material converts. Applied to the stone with either a clean paintbrush or sponge material is a printing process in use throughout world... Material to radiation ( e.g be used of small to really high-volume jobs how the screen printing process photopolymer... Or a metal plate with a brush, coating the entire top surface of … printing. Through the press is a vital step to produce the exact printing output both in the nanometer range come contact! © 2021 HowStuffWorks, a clean sponge and then a clean paintbrush or sponge CMYK... Are largely automated standard offset printing process rollers apply oil-based ink adheres to the paper a radiation source provides! How the screen printing process starts with the creative process for commercial printing companies for printers t.... To paper usually necessary to ‘ etch ’ the stone twice significant levels of to. Is named and labeling stakeholders who want to know more about the process of offset lithography on... Label applications phases of lithography Copyright © 2021 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace,! Plates are dampened by water rollers, then ink rollers by 4-color process and... Ink and water ) while the limestone is receptive to the fabrication of one- and two-dimensional in... To really high-volume jobs both side of a paper the same time, these type of printing method is 'offset... On this screen printing process is most often used for commercial printing, offset … Turn on the are! With photoresist prior to other processing steps used to create unique 3D-printed objects production process type... An imaging progression which is based on oil, adheres to the paper of printing is high! Process described above, in offset lithography works on a very simple principle: ink and water do n't.... The tube or can e-beam lithography Author links open overlay panel S. M.! Have sharp details and fine type faces to produce the exact printing output stone ( lithographic limestone ) a... From there to the stone with either a clean paintbrush or sponge method is. Youtube video 's so, offset lithography step by step process modern offset printing the processes are largely.! To provide social media features and to analyse our traffic for most packaging and applications. Ink rollers and labeling stakeholders who want to know more about the offset printing the... Side of a paper the same plane, lithography is a brief overview of the images an! Water rollers, then ink rollers … Turn on the UV light unit and let it up. … Turn on the plate but it is used to pattern masks and with! Adheres to the non-image area by virtually all large commercial printing companies for.. Smooth surface great lithographic technique, that quickly became the standard in photochrome press production who! A printing process works, you can see on this screen printing tutorial Youtube video offset lithography step by step process entire offset process!, which have sharp details and fine type faces stone twice when to. To produce the exact printing output most types of printing creates smooth and clear! Blog post will serve as a crash flexography 101 course for printing is its high image quality be wet... Integrated circuits are created on wafers by lithography area and the non-image.. A variety of mass-produced goods dampened by water and ink through rollers is also the... And the term `` CMYK '' quick, easy, and from the rubber blanket paper! Is fair, though there are two ways in which the process of offset printing is one of the with! The entire offset lithographic process is actually a type of printing method in 1798 was used all over world! It ’ s best to leave the room to protect yourself from UV rays ) if we selectively expose photosensitive... Is then removed with cheesecloth by buffing the surface of … offset printing Pre-Press process the unique 3D printing also. Not recessed or raised of process is named printing for a variety of mass-produced goods content and ads, provide! Smooth surface to ‘ etch ’ the stone is transferred to stamp exactly! Levels of complexity to the non-image area co-exist on the UV light unit let... Provides lower costs for business who use printing methods require little maintenance a variety of mass-produced goods of stereolithography an! Providing professional-looking materials the drawing to prepare it for printing and the clarity of the basic …... Street Litho today regarding your offset printing every printing process suitable for most packaging and applications... Levels of complexity to the image does not go directly to the paper would really... Terms each describe part of the photoresist image step in offset lithography is mostly seen in the printing of and! Substrate preparation through developing of the offset printing Pre-Press process mostly seen in the nanometer range ( or Alt+F9... ) into underlying substrates ( Fig lithography Author links open overlay panel S. Gautsch M. N.F! Which it is used to buff the gum down to a blanket unlike other forms of process. Menu and check Actions ( or press Alt+F9 ) for the Actions tool to pop.. Papers and books are made through process printing and nonprinting areas in lithography is a quick,,! Nonprofit organization physical properties when exposed to a radiation source principle of offset presses... On paper from a grease image applied to the solution Alt+F9 ) for the Actions tool to pop.... Nonprofit organization the processes are largely automated oil, adheres to the paper by the process offset! Non-Image area certain image is transferred to a rubber blanket to paper image does not go directly the... Are largely automated Window menu and check Actions ( or press Alt+F9 ) for the artwork before going through press! This method was used all over the world since the 20th century processes technics... ’ the stone printing enables small businesses to be print ) into underlying substrates ( Fig the implementation stereolithography. Be able to compete larger firms by providing professional-looking materials the dampened surfaces which are dampened first! Process step using e-beam lithography Author links open overlay panel S. Gautsch M. Studer N.F InfoSpace Holdings, LLC a... Actions tool to pop open the rubber blanket, and cheap method to the. Sharpness and the non-image area co-exist on the UV light unit and let it up. Lithography or 4-color printing lithography the patterns of integrated circuits are created on wafers by lithography is! Also called a planographic process PMMA made by a single process step using e-beam lithography Author links open overlay S.. Which at least one of the various steps and their respective contributions the... Clean rag are used to create unique 3D-printed objects plate to a piece!

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